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In fact, the famous general Pancho Villa fell into this category, ordering the execution of 90 soldaderas. Two of the most famous soldaderas , Angela Jimenez, who fought as Angel Jimenez, and Petra Herrera, known as Pedro, resumed their female identities once the war was over.

Another, Amelio Robles born Amelia , continued to live his life as a man, a path he forged during the war, until his death. Jimenez, whose true identity was known by many of the men around her, built a reputation for threatening anyone who tried to seduce her. Herrera committed to the lie a little more, telling fellow soldiers that she shaved at dawn before others woke up.

She eventually earned recognition for her intelligence, valor and skill for destroying bridges. To appear physically male, Robles deliberately chose shirts with large chest pockets, common in rural areas, and assumed the mannerisms common among men at the time. He stood out for his aggression, drinking, womanizing and skills with guns and horses. Often, soldaderas , living as both men and women, ascended the ranks to lead as many as dozens of male troops, Robles included. Moreover, such a woman with a healthy spirit would bear children who would become soldiers.

The movement to incorporate women into the SDF coincided with the mass movement of the s opposing the U. This political backdrop led some military officials to believe that recruitment of women could play a role in changing public opinion about the SDF. Since their introduction into the SDF, a substantial number of women have served in the recruitment division.

The recruitment strategy in Okinawa, a location with an overwhelming U. They are uniformed citizens. Figure 5 is a SDF recruiting poster, showing two men arm wrestling while surrounded by four women and three men in uniform. Figure 6 is a SDF recruiting poster. A male SDF official is shown in the center, surrounded by young civilian friends, five men and two women.

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Figure 6 SDF recruiting poster, Human, comrade, friendship, yesterday, today, tomorrow, the meeting of fresh spirits is an important time! The presence of women in each of these posters is essential to creating the warm image of SDF friendship with citizens. In the s and s, in close coordination with the U. A central figure in promoting these changes was Nakasone Yasuhiro, the hawkish prime minister from to He shifted restrictive Japanese security policy in a more aggressive direction by abolishing the one percent Gross National Product GNP ceiling on military spending and launching joint military training with the U.

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At that time, the role of women in the SDF expanded in various ways. From the late s to the early s during the bubble economy era, civilian jobs were plentiful and the SDF faced a shortfall in male recruits. As a result, SDF policy makers sought to recruit more women. As Figure 1 shows, the number of women in the SDF in 8,, or 3. An additional factor further influenced official decisions regarding gender integration in the SDF. External pressure, exerted by global institutions such as the United Nations helped promote gender equality worldwide, including in the military.

Civilian and military officials of the Defense Agency moved to significantly expand the numbers and types of jobs that SDF women could perform. The percentage of SDF jobs open to women reached 75 percent, up from 39 percent.

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Although CEDAW triggered these changes, their underlying cause cannot be reduced to feminist efforts. Karl L. There were other noteworthy factors. The number of male-only recruitment posters has been decreasing and the number of female-only and male and female posters has been increasing. Although female models appeared in posters beginning in , SDF designers began to over-represent women in the s in order to appeal to young Japanese men and possibly women as potential SDF members.

The following two figures illustrate the shifting gender profile in recruitment posters. Figure 7 is a painting and Figure 8 is a photograph, but their composition is identical. In Figure 7, the three SDF men pictured are not smiling, while in Figure 8 the three women pictured are smiling broadly and displaying their white teeth.

But who loves whom? The implication in Figure 9 is clear: the civilian woman loves the uniformed male SDF member. However, two interpretations are possible for Figure 8. Another interpretation, however, is that the women SDF members depicted in the poster love the vitality of unseen male SDF applicants or recruits. In both interpretations, the posters try to appeal to potential young male recruits. This was designed to give women the opportunity to gain promotions to senior officer ranks. Thus, the possibility that women would become officers and decision makers increased.

CEDAW is again a key to understanding this change. It is striking that even many leading officials and Diet members who tried to open the door for women in the SDF justified the change in traditional terms. Figure 9 SDF recruiting poster, As a man, I think that female students of the NDA will have a positive effect. People will change their view of the SDF and young men will decide to enroll in the NDA and contribute to national defense so that they can find good wives.

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I recommend thinking that way. In addition to recruitment problems, government officials were more concerned about the image of the government institution kan than they were in improving the position of women in society. White papers at the time explained the necessity for the SDF to extend opportunities for women to work, following a period in which women gained greater opportunities to work in civil society.

In , the Japanese government promulgated the Basic Law for a Gender Equal Society, which proclaims the realization of a gender-equal society a top-priority in 21st century Japan and clarifies the basic principles for achieving a gender-equal society and the respective duties of the state, local governments, and citizens.

Since then, the SDF have promoted further gender integration. Since then, the participation of female service members in UN peacekeeping operations has become commonplace. In addition, when the Japanese government supported the U. When the Japanese government declared the southern Iraq city Samawa a noncombat area and dispatched the SDF there, female officials were included in the first group.


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At the same time, this refueled the debate in Japan about Article Nine of its Constitution. What message does this photo communicate? The inclusion of female members in the troop is intended to persuade skeptical Japanese people to view Samawa as a noncombat area and the Iraq mission as a benevolent peace operation. If Samawa is a dangerous combat area and the Iraq mission is to wage war, after all, who would send women there? There is abundant evidence to show that the Japanese media lacks a critical stance towards these politicized gender representations.

Figures 11, 12, 14, and 15 are photographs that appeared in morning newspapers on February 6, , when the fifth SDF force was dispatched to Iraq. On that day, about soldiers left for Iraq and family members saw them off. Interestingly, news reporters from several different newspapers chose the same two subjects in their depictions of the event. Another example of prescribed gender representation can be seen in the following recruiting movie created by the ASDF in This is an email written by a male SDF member to his girlfriend, who is shown reading the message on her cell phone.

Dear Sacchan, We finished serving in Iraq and today we are leaving for Japan. I was glad to hear that our plane was called the Bluebird of Happiness. This was the best word for we Japanese. Constant tensions and hardships were no big deal for me but I have been concerned about you, Sacchan. I am sorry to have worried you and … thank you.

Change in civil society had a ripple effect leading to changes in the SDF. At the same time, the Japanese government has been promoting gender integration of the SDF.

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The government upgraded the Defense Agency to the Defense Ministry in What propelled this change in policy? One factor is the need to recruit SDF personnel in the era of a declining birthrate and aging population. Another factor is globally-promoted gender mainstreaming. Processes of militarization encompass not only military buildup in wartime, but also diverse transformations of civilian society in peacetime. Everyone knows this—and yet nobody talks, which is what allows the feminists to frame the debate entirely in terms of equal opportunity.

In essence, we are asked to transform the entire culture of the U. But is military service in our democracy really a right or entitlement?

Camouflage Isn't Only for Combat: Gender, Sexuality, and Women in the Military

Or does it remain the privilege or in wartime obligation it used to be? That was a question unasked when the AVF was set up, but chances are the Supreme Court will soon have to answer it unless the Commander-in-Chief answers it first. One might think that feminists would celebrate the progress made by servicewomen. And the reason they do, according to Francke, is clear: a male-dominated military establishment persists, from the top down and bottom up, in repression and even persecution of women, and conspires to protect its last male-only units in the name of atavistic machismo.

Meanwhile, the Pentagon continues to stoke recruitment of women to the point where one-fifth of all new recruits are now female, DACOWITS continues to pressure the military academies to increase their female enrollments, and the movement to lift restrictions on women in combat is cresting. One need only retrace the dramatic change of tone in the statements of top military personnel over the last twenty years to discover how much ground has been gained by the feminist camp.

It would be surely be more rational if conversation instead of dancing made the order of the day. Lewis argued that the issue was not whether females could perform the caring and instructional missions of the clergy as well or better than most men, but rather that the Church was a creature of revelation, not reason, and that the Lord had chosen to place the burden of priesthood on men.