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The genomics of yeast responses to environmental stress and starvation.

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The insertion of these LTRs may have been induced by stress conditions since the associated genes respond to the same stresses that in laboratory strains activate Tf1 and the closely related element Tf2 Chen et al.


Polymorphic Tf insertions found in wild strains clustered next to sporulation frequency genes. The number of sporulation genes among the total number of genes adjacent to polymorphic LTRs is given in parentheses. Significant enrichments FDR-adjusted P -values are indicated in red.

B Cluster dendrogram of wild strains calculated from the presence—absence of polymorphic Tf1 insertions. Approximately unbiased AU P -values are indicated for each node. Significant AUs are indicated in red. Although increased mobility has long been thought to benefit the host, the precise impact and importance of this activity have not been directly studied. In asking how cells adapt to stress, we found that TE integration into specific groups of promoters can provide a major path to resistance.

The enrichment of LTRs in the stress response promoters of wild isolates of S. Our TE tagging of strains with individual insertions allowed us to quantify the fraction of cells that gained resistance to CoCl 2 in independent passaging experiments. While the competition enriched positions represented 3. In addition to the substantial resistance provided by integration, it is noteworthy that the fraction of TE-mutated cells that provide resistance 3. Together, these results indicate that the integration activity of Tf1 provides substantial benefit when cells are subjected to stress.

The high impact of the Tf1 insertions is due in part to the targeting mechanism that directs integration to promoters Guo and Levin ; Hickey et al. Another key feature of Tf1 function that increases its contribution to adaptation is a bias in the integration mechanism that targets promoters. A critical feature of Tf1 activity and that of the closely related Tf2 is that their promoters participate in the core stress response showing significant activation when cells are exposed to these stresses Chen et al.

Significantly, the activation of Tf1 transcription results in increased integration frequencies Fig. As a result, each of these features, increased mobility, targeting of promoters, and the stimulation of adjacent genes, promotes adaptation. Having observed these properties, we propose that Tf1 is a highly evolved mutagenic system that benefits the host by driving adaptation to environmental insults Fig. Model for adaptation through stress-induced mobilization of transposable elements.

A single chromosome out of the three S. Repeated exposure to stress results in cycles of increased transposition.


Insertions target different regions on any of the S. Competition between cells containing new insertions results in the selection of sets of insertions that improve survival. The activation of Tf1 mobility is observed in a surprising diversity of stress conditions, including CoCl 2 , caffeine, and phthalate.

While this is not an exhaustive list, it supports the McClintock proposal that TEs reorganize the genome when cells are exposed to unfamiliar forms of stress, a condition she termed genome shock. The integration of Tf1 at a different promoters allows cells to fine-tune their individual stress responses in ways that are more likely to allow survival than relying on the existing broad network of the core stress response.

An intriguing additional possibility is that through continued exposure to an unfamiliar stress, multiple insertions could accumulate in individual cells that together could form the foundation of a new gene regulatory network GRN. These networks would be specific depending on the nature of the insult. The network of LTRs associated with sporulation and other survival genes found in wild strains provides strong support that TE integration can create GRNs in natural populations. The lists of yeast strains, plasmids, and oligonucleotides used in this study are available in Supplemental Tables S3 through S5 , respectively.

All S. The exposure to stress was carried out by supplementing the media as indicated: PMG liquid media were supplemented with CoCl 2 hexahydrate Sigma to a final concentration of 0. To monitor new transposition events occurring from the genomic copies of Tf1, an AI was introduced by homologous recombination within the sequence coding for the neo -resistance gene located within Tf1- neo.

Cells that allowed transformation were selected on media PM lacking leucine. The presence of the AI was confirmed by amplification of a bp fragment between primers HL and The library of S. Briefly, transposition was induced by expressing Tf1- neo from the plasmid pHL in the diploid strain YHL, which lacked endogenous copies of Tf1.

Transposition induced in media lacking vitamin B1 was then inhibited by addition of vitamin B1. The transposition frequency was monitored by transposition assay. The amplification was performed using Expand long range dNTPack Roche according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The full-length Tf1 flanked by target homologies was then assembled by ligating the AvrII-XhoI fragment central section of Tf1 from pHL into the plasmids containing partial Tf1- neo flanked by sequences of the integration site Supplemental Table S5.

The resulting plasmids containing full Tf1- neo flanked by sequences of the integration site Supplemental Table S5 were digested with 10 units of SpeI and used for lithium acetate transformation in order to achieve homologous recombination.

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The presence of Tf1 at the expected integration site was confirmed by PCR amplification of a fragment spanning neo and the adjacent genomic region primer pairs described in Supplemental Table S6 and by DNA blot data not shown. The resulting yeast strains are described in Supplemental Table S4. Transposition frequency was calculated according to the protocol described previously Chatterjee et al. The three lowest dilutions were spread onto YES plates, and the highest dilution, as well as a number of cells equivalent to 25 mL of culture, was spread on YES containing G The AI allows the expression of the G resistance only in cells that have undergone a new genomic integration event Levin After 3 d, the number of colonies were counted for three biological replicates, apart from integration 4 in 10 mM caffeine with only two biological replicates, and extrapolated to the number of cells in 1 mL of culture.

The transposition frequency corresponds to the percentage of colonies resistant to G The number of generations achieved during the culture was determined by measuring the OD at the beginning and end of cultures. Transposition rates were calculated by dividing the transposition frequency by the number of generations.

The P -values were calculated using Student's t -test. Triplicate mL cultures were inoculated in PM with the library of S. CoCl 2 was either omitted or added to a final concentration of 0. The cultures were passaged for 80 generations.

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Genomic DNA was isolated and processed for Illumina sequencing of Tf1 integration sites according to the method of Chatterjee et al. The mapping of Tf1 integration sites to the S.

Responding to stress - Processing the Environment - MCAT - Khan Academy

The relative proportion of cells containing a given Tf1 integration was extrapolated from the number of sequence reads and normalized to the total number of mapped sequence reads per replicate sample. Inversely, a position was categorized as depleted when the ratio was lower than 0.

Genomic Expression Programs in the Response of Yeast Cells to Environmental Changes

To assess the statistical significance of intersections among the three sets of enriched positions in the 0. The gene set analyzed was adjacent to positions enriched twofold or more in three replicas grown in 0. Functional enrichment analyses were performed against different sets of ontology annotations: S. Enrichments were calculated as the ratio of the proportion of ontology genes in the query relative to the proportion of the ontology genes among all RNA Pol II—transcribed genes Supplemental Software S2. The P -values were calculated using the default setting of the GO Term Finder application for the Process annotation, using a hypergeometric test, and were corrected per gene set for false-discovery rates.