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Estimating and Tendering for Construction Work. Spon's First Stage Estimating Handbook. The following publications have been authored, edited or contain contributions from Mark Hackett and Gary Statham. The original series of Aqua Group books — Tenders and Contracts for Building, Pre-Contract Practice and Contract Administration — first published from — has long been established as laying down good practice for the building team, as well as for students.

The Aqua group is a team of architects and quantity surveyors which was originally founded in the s and has since acquired several new generations of members. This volume brings together the material from Pre-Contract Practice and Contract Administration and it was published in The text has been substantially updated to take account of changes to industry practise, JCT98, the Construction Act and a host of other changes.

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It also contains a chapter on capital allowances. Today BQ are also used for cost planning; projected cash flows and budget, for valuation of interim payments and variation orders and for settlement of final account. It also suggested that, BQ may totally disappear from the UK construction industry in the near future. Many reasons were given for such state of affairs. These include the increased usage of the nontraditional or fast-tracking procurement systems such as turnkey contract, design and build contract, management contracting, build-operate-transfer etc. It has to a large extent revolutionised the construction practices, project management approach and the procurement and contract administration procedures.

The contractors are only required to provide cumulative or lump sum figure plus all the necessary professional and management fees.

Even if the contractor is required to submit a priced BQ the use of this cost document is very limited. It was said that the use of BQ to comes to an end when the contractor has been selected and the contract has been signed. It cannot be used for any other purpose once the tendering process has been completed.

Intro to Construction Contract Administration - Chapter 2: Roles and Responsibilities

The priced and completed BQ tend to put away in a cabinet or sent to the store room to collect dust. At the same time, John Ing has mentioned that BQ were not fully utilized by the project teams. It was said to be self perpetuating because many were not able to relate BQ to the everyday project development processes. As pointed by Willis et.

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Pre-contract practice and contract administration for the building team

There is a need for quantity surveyors to further develop and diversify their role and services in the industry. Are they still relevant in our construction industry today, especially when more and more construction projects are being let out using the non-traditional contracts?


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Are they still useful to the clients, consultants, contractors and suppliers throughout the project development process? The paper is divided into 4 parts — the first part describes what BQ is, the second part looks into the historical back ground of , the third part discusses the basic use and function of and the use of in countries around the world and the final part considers the use and relevance of from different perspectives.

Before going further into the question of whether BQ is relevant or useful in the context of our construction industry, it appropriate to understand what is BQ, its origin, usage around the world and its basic function or use. Basically, it is a document with detail information about the type, nature and quantities of the finished work in a construction Willis,et al Normally, it is compiled together with the form of tender, specification, preliminary bill and list of drawings to form a tender document. The profession was said to have emerged in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century, although the firm of Henry Cooper and Sons of Reading was established as early as Prior to the first recorded usage of the term "quantity surveyor" in , the terms "measurer", "custom surveyor" or "surveyor" were used.

In those early days the quantity surveyors acted for the master tradesmen, measuring the work after completion for use in making payment to workers and frequently submitted as partisan Final Accounts to the building owner to claim for payment.

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Later on it was the practice of the building owners to call for tenders before any work was undertaken. A procedure was then developed to invite several master builders to submit tenders for the total price of the project rather than a collection of prices from master tradesmen or what is known today as sub-contractors. For the purpose of submitting the bid or tender, each builder then has to come out with accurate estimates of the project cost or tender.

It was done by measuring and quantifying the quantities of all materials and labour necessary to complete the work, i. As each builder had to prepare his own BQ for each project, they came to realise that they were duplicating a lot of effort by each measuring the same quantities from the architect's drawings. The builders will then price the BQ and submit their tenders on the same basis. They would share the cost of the quantity surveyor or the successful builder will pay the surveyor and include the payment in their bids.

On the part of the building owners themselves, since they ended up paying for the quantity surveyor's fees, it finally dawned on them that they might as well employ him directly and get some cost advice from him as well. Apart from some minor changes in term of method of measurement, content and format of presentation, BQ is still a document detailing description and quantities of all the construction work of a project.

It may now may come in elemental, trade, work section or operational form. With the advent of ICT, the process of preparing s has evolved from the tedious manual and time consuming processes to semi-automated or fully automated processes involving the use of computers and sophisticated specialised software.

In the traditional procurement system, BQ is used mainly for project costing and as part of tender document for soliciting competitive tenders from contractors. It is a uniform document for contractors to estimate or price the work on precisely the same basis, thus allowing for the fairest bidding.

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Willis et al. Later, it was found that BQ can be used for other further purposes, at any stage of the project development i. Molloy, ; Willis et al. To the quantity surveyors, BQ are also used for project costing or estimating, for assessing tenders, price negotiation; valuation of interim payment and variation orders and for the settlement of final account. It is considered as a multi-purpose document.