Read e-book The Chemistry of the Carbon-Carbon Triple Bond, Part 2 (The Chemistry of Functional Groups)

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That is, every chemical bond is represented by a line or lines, in the cases of double and triple bonds. The purpose of the detailed representation here is to show how easy it is to check that you are drawing the correct structure s by counting the lines bonds extending away from each type of atom. Therefore when double bonds are represented by two parallel lines and triple bonds are represented by three parallel lines it is easy to check if molecular structures are at least possible by counting the total number of straight lines extending from each atom.

However, although this is a useful way to identify any wrong impossible! This is due to the existence of multiple isomers of some combinations of elements. For example, see the structures of propanal and propanone above.

Saturated vs. unsaturated compounds

They are isomers of each other. When studying the structures and naming of organic molecules it is useful to see and compare many examples of similar chemicals and their structures. Review the table above then visit the links to further examples in the first column left-side of the table. The above table of organic chemistry functional groups is not a complete list but includes those functional groups required by most UK A-Level Chemistry that is, AS Chemistry and A2 Chemistry combined exam boards.

Note : This is one of many pages about types of organic compounds in our Organic Chemistry Section. Similar and related pages describe hydrocarbons , alkanes , haloalkanes , alkenes, alkynes , cycloalkanes , aromatic hydrocarbons arenes , alcohols , esters , ethers , aldehydes , ketones , carboxylic acids , acid chlorides , acid anhydrides , azo dyes, amines , amides , nitriles , amino acids chemistry , peptides, proteins chemistry , polypeptides and others. If you need further information ask your chemistry tutor.

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By obesity might exceed smoking as the largest preventable cause of cancer in women - 25 Sep ' In this case, the hydroxyl group - OH is the highest priority group. Step 2: Assign carbon numbers to every atom in the parent carbon chain with the carbon atom that is bonded to the highest priority group where the highest priority functional group have the the lowest carbon number.

Step 3: Name any double and triple bonds in a similar fashion as we have discussed previously. Step 5: Name any other other substituent groups disregarding priority order now that are present in the organic molecule in alphabetical order , according to their prefix names , and assigning lowest carbon position number to every substituent group as possible.

NOTE: Once the main functional group has been assigned, in this case it is the OH group for alcohols, then we do not care about group priorities anymore. That is, they are treated to have equal naming priority. Therefore, we assign the rest of the remaining substituent or functional groups i. We will be jumping straight into the deeper end, i. This is because they all follow the same steps as shown in the previous examples of naming alcohol with and without substituent groups.

Br, Cl, OH in our case are named alphabetically without the need to consider naming priority. This is because the carbonyl group is always attached to one hydrogen atom and only one alkyl R group, rather than two alkyl groups in ketones. NOTE: The carboxyl functional group is always on carbon number 1 in carboxylic acid due to the presence of the hydroxyl group OH that is attached to the carbon. For the same reason, since we only have two carbons in ethanoic acid and that hydroxyl group is always attached on one side, it implies that the chloro substituent atom must be always be on carbon 2 in ethanoic acid as we start numbering from the side of carboxyl group.

Depending on the number of carbon atoms in the R group, it can attach amine to different carbon numbers. CH3 to be specific. NOTE: We have a methyl group attached to the nitrogen atom rather than carbon which is not numbered and another methyl attached to carbon number 2. These are just organic compounds with halogen atoms attached to them. We have already examined some examples of organic molecules e. The following list are of the halogen atoms that you will encounter in organic molecules during in HSC Chemistry which we have already seen previously.


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Saturated hydrocarbons , i. Comparatively, unsaturated hydrocarbons , i.

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1.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry

In organic chemistry, structural isomers often called constitutional isomers at University level chemistry. We can say that two or more molecules are chain isomers if they satisfy the following conditions:. We have now examined the definition and criteria required how molecules to be qualified or classified as chain isomers.


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Now, check out the HSC Chemistry Guide below to that takes you through to learn how to draw chain isomers in a step-by-step guide. All aboard the train!

Carbon & its compounds, Lecture 29, Class X,Nomenclature functional groups double triple bonds

We are going to the next stop to explore another type of structural isomers, position isomers! In order for two or more molecules to be considered position isomers, they need to meet the following criteria:. View the HSC Chemistry Guide below to see how you can draw position isomers, step-by-step , when given chemical name or chemical formula of an unknown organic molecule. Again, there are a set of conditions that two or more molecules must satisfy in order for them to be considered functional group isomers. These are:.

Introduction to organic chemistry | Organic Chemistry 1: An open textbook

Structural isomers would have the same chemical property if they have the same functional group s in their structural formula. The following guidelines will help you compare the melting and boiling points between different isomer molecules. As you will explore with polymers which is part of the last Inquiry Question in Module 7, you learn that molecules e. Therefore, you would expect the more chain branching that a molecule exhibits, the lower its melting and boiling point will be.

1.1. Introduction to organic chemistry

This is because chain branching prevents the isomers from packing their carbon chains closely together and, thus, the intermolecular forces e. As we have explored in Preliminary HSC Chemistry, intermolecular forces play an important role in governing the melting and boiling point of molecules. As for functional group isomers, the isomers have different functional groups allowed differing extent of chain branching thus affecting dispersion forces and maybe different degree of dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding.

Therefore, their melting and boiling point physical property may vary. ConquerHSC Homepage. Version 1.


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  4. Week 8 Content. Overview of Week 8's Inquiry Question. Naming Unbranched Alkanes from C1 to C8.

    Isomers of Alkenes

    Naming alkanes with substituent group s.